Electrocatalytic CO2 conversion to C2 products: Catalysts design, market perspectives and techno-economic aspects


The energy crisis caused by the incessant growth in global energy demand joint to its associated greenhouse emissions motivates the urgent need to control and mitigate atmospheric CO2 levels. Leveraging CO2 as carbon pool to produce value-added products represents a cornerstone of the circular economy. Among the CO2 utilization strategies, electrochemical reduction of CO2 conversion to produce fuels and chemicals is booming due to its versatility and end-product flexibility. Herein most of the studies focused on C1 products although C2 and C2+ compounds are chemically and economically more appealing targets requiring advanced catalytic materials. Still, despite the complex pathways for C2+ products formation, their multiple and assorted applications have motivated the search of suitable electrocatalysts. In this review, we gather and analyse in a comprehensive manner the progress made regarding C2+ products considering not only the catalyst design and the electrochemistry features but also techno-economic aspects in order to envisage the most profitable scenarios. This state-of-the-art analysis showcases that electrochemical reduction of CO2 to C2 products will play a key role in the decarbonisation of the chemical industry paving the way towards a low-carbon future.

Fig. 1. Electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction pathways to C2 products

Paper information


Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 161 (2022) 112329


Estela Ruiz-López
Jesús Gandara-Loe
Francisco Baena-Moreno
Tomas Ramirez Reina
José Antonio Odriozola



CO2 reduction
C2 products
Electrochemical reduction
Techno-economic analysis